Early Childhood Development (ECD)

"The early childhood period is the basis for later success in life. It is the time when a child’s brain develops at a rapid rate creating plenty of opportunities for children’s learning and development. A child can have a good start in life when he/she grows up in a nurturing and stimulating environment that meets his/her essential needs such as nutrition, health, and safety, as well as the psychological, social, spiritual, and intellectual needs. This also means that the child has a greater...

Education

“Education is a proven way out of economic despair, and there is a close correlation between low levels of education and poverty, both the poverty of the individual and the relative poverty of the state. Through education, individuals contribute to alleviating poverty, liberating both the mind and the hands to a life of dignity.” Source : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2006. “The Right to Education”. UNESCO. < https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/...

Educational fee waiver

“School fee waiver should enable those who cannot afford to pay for their education to have access to schooling” Source : Kadzamira, E. and Rose, P. 2003. “Can free primary education meet the needs of the poor?: evidence from Malawi". International Journal of Educational Development , n.23. < https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Esme_Kadzamira/publication/222116190_Can_Free_Primary_Education_Meet_the_Needs_of_the_Poor_Evidence_from_Malawi/links/56e819d508ae9aecadbac7f2/Can-Free-Primary-...

Effectiveness

"Effectiveness relates to how well outputs are converted to outcomes and impacts (e.g. reduction in poverty gap and inequality, improved nutrition, reduction in school dropout, increased use of health services, asset accumulation by the poor, increased smallholder productivity, social cohesion)" Source: European Commission. 2019. "Social Protection across the Humanitarian-Development Nexus: A Game Changer in Supporting People through Crises" Tools and Methods Series, No. 26. < https://europa...

Efficiency

"Efficiency refers to the ability of a programme to achieve its intended objectives at the least cost possible in terms of use of inputs (i.e. capital, labour and other inputs)" Source: European Commission. 2019. "Social Protection across the Humanitarian-Development Nexus: A Game Changer in Supporting People through Crises" Tools and Methods Series, No. 26. < https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/sp-nexus/documents/european-commission-2019-tools-and-methods-series-reference-document-no-26-social...

Electricity subsidies

“Electricity subsidies (…) are financial subsidies that result from below-cost pricing, with cost measured as accounting costs. Subsidies are measured as the difference between the price of electricity paid by consumers and the average cost of supply.” Source: Komives, K. et al. 2009. "Residential Electricity Subsidies in Mexico - Exploring Options for Reform and for Enhancing the Impact on the Poor". World Bank Working Paper , No. 160. Washington, DC: The World Bank. < https://openknowledge...

Employability

"Employability refers to the set of achievements, skills, understandings and personal attributes that make individuals more likely to gain employment, stay in employment and to be successful in their chosen occupations. Employability of individuals depends on: (a) personal attributes (including adequacy of knowledge and skills); (b) how these personal attributes are presented on the labour market; (c) the environmental and social contexts (incentives and opportunities offered to update and...

Empowerment

"Empowerment is helping people to help themselves. This concept is used in many contexts: management ("the process of sharing information, training and allowing employees to manage their jobs in order to obtain optimum results"), community development ("action-oriented management training aimed at community members and their leaders, poverty reduction, gender strategy, facilitation, income generation, capacity development, community participation, social animation") and mobilisation ("Leading...

Energy subsidies

"(A)ny government action that concerns primarily the energy sector that lowers the cost of energy production, raises the price received by energy producers or lowers the price paid by energy consumers.” Source: IEA. 2006. "Carrots and Sticks: Taxing and Subsidising Energy". International Energy Agency (IEA). < https://webstore.iea.org/carrots-and-sticks-taxing-and-subsidising-energy >. Accessed 10 June 2020.

Environment and climate change

“Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. (...) It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.” Source: IPCC. 2007. "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). < https://...