Fiscal Space for Social Protection: A Handbook for Assessing Financing Options

This practical handbook is an essential companion to assess financing options to extend social protection coverage and benefits. This guide demonstrates that there are alternatives even in the poorest countries. These include eight options: (1) expanding social security coverage and contributory revenues; (2) increasing tax revenues; (3) eliminating illicit financial flows; (4) re-allocating public expenditures; (5) using fiscal and central bank foreign exchange reserves; (6) borrowing and restructuring existing debt; (7) adopting a more accommodating macroeconomic from work; and (8) increasing aid and transfers.